"Articles ordered by his Majestie to be observed by all persons that put in horses to run for the Plate, the new Round-heate at Newmarkett, set out the 16th day of October, in the 17th year of our Soveraign Lord King Charles II. Which Plate is to be rid for yearly, the seconde Thursday in October, for euer :
"Imprim's - That euery horse, mare, or gelding that rideth for this prize shalbe led out between eleven and twelve of the clock in the forenoon, and shalbe ready to start by one of the same day.
"Item - Eury horse that rideth shalbe bridled, saddled, and shod, and his rider shall weigh twelve stone, fourteen pounds to the stone ; and eury rider that wanteth above one pound and a halfe after he hath rid the heat, shall win no plate or prize.
"Item - Eury horse that rides the new Round Course three times over (set out the 16th day of October, in the 17th year of King Charles II.) on the outside of the Ditch from Newmarket, shall leave all the posts and flags the first and last heats on the right hand, and the second on the left hand, starting and ending at the weighing post, by Cambridge Gap, called Thomond's Post.
"Item - Whatsoever horse rideth willingly, or for advantage, within any of the said flags, shall win no plate or prize, but lose his stakes, and ride no more ; but if he be thrust by any horse against his will, then he shall lose only the heate ; prouided he keeps all the rest of the flags, and come within distance.
"Item - It is allowed for any horse to be relieved at the discrec'on of the owner at the end of each heat, and eury horse shall haue half an hour's time to rub between each heat.
"Item - Whosoever doth stop or stay any of the horses that rideth for this plate or prize, if he be either owner, servant, party, or bettor, and it appears to be willingly done, he shall win no plate, prize, or bets.
"Item - Euery rider that layeth hold on, or striketh any of the riders, shall win no plate or prize.
"Item - If any horse, mare, or gelding, shall fall by any mischance, so that the rider be dismounted, and if does his best afterwards to get within distance, and ride fair (which shall be determined by the Judges of the Field) he shall only lose the heat.
"Item - Any of the Judges may weigh any of the riders at the end of any of the heats ; and if he be found to have fraudulently cast away any of his weight, and want any more than his pound and a halfe, he shall lose the plate, prize, and stakes.
"Item - If any difference shalbe about riding for this plate, which is not expressed in these articles, it shalbe referred to the noblemen and gentlemen which are then present, and being contributors to the said plate ; but more especially the Judges, the Judge being to be chosen every time the plate or prize is run for, by the major part of the contributors that are there present.
"Item - Eury horse that winneth three heats shall win the plate or prize, without running the course.
"Item - Eury horse that runneth for the plate or prize shall put in three pounds, except it be a contributor's horse, and then he shall put in forty shillings.
"Item - Whosoever winneth the plate or prize shall give to the Clerk of the Course twenty shillings, to be distributed to the poor on both sides of Newmarket, and twenty shillings to the Clerk of the Race ; for which he is to keep the course plain and free from cart roots.
"Item - The Clerk of the Race is to receive the stakes before any horse starts, and is to deliver it to the tenant for the time being, who is to give sufficient security, not only for his rent, but likewise to add such stakes to the ensuing plate or prize the next year.
"Item - Eury Horse, Mare, or Gelding, that rideth for this plate or prize, shall likewise deposit twenty shillings for every heat, which the winning horse shall haue ; and the last horse of every heat shall pay the second horse's stakes and his own, which stakes are likewise to be deposited into the Clerk of the Race's hands before the horses start, to pay the winning horse his stakes every heat, and likewise twenty shillings to the second horse, to save his stakes ; but if there runneth but two horses, then no stakes to be run for but what is to add to the next year's plate.
"Item - No horse that winneth not one of the three Heats shalbe permitted to come in and run the course.
"Item - The plate or prize is to be run for the second Thursday in October, every rider carrying twelve stone weight, at fourteen pounds to the stone, besides bridle and saddle ; and if any gentleman that rides shall carry weight in his saddle, he shall have liberty, provided he allows two pounds to the rest for the weight of their saddles.
"Item - The Clerk of the Race is to summons the riders to start again at the end of half an hour by the signal of drum, trumpet, or any other way, setting up an hour glass for that purpose.
"Item - No man is admitted to ride for this prize that is either a serving man or groom.
"Item - Those horses that after the running of the three heats shall run the four mile course, shall lead away, and start within an hour and halfe, or else to win no plate or prize."
The earliest reference to the Town Plate at Newmarket appears on page 22 of Muir's Ye Olde New-Markitt Calendar under Results of Newmarket Matches. The result, which appears amongst those of the 1680 Spring Meeting, reads - "Town Plate. Mr. Griffin's horse - 1. Three lords and two other gentlemen's horses competed. The prize was afterwards presented to the town by Mr. Griffin".
Cheny's Racing Calendar for 1744, page 74, referring to the Town Plate run at Newmarket on Thursday, October 11, says - "This Prize was founded in the Reign of K. Charles the Second, to be continued annually for ever, free for any Horse, &c. and to be yearly run for on the second Thursday in October, Weight twelve Stone, exclusive of Bridle and Saddle, and rode for by Gentlemen".
Pick's Turf Register, volume 1, page 74, says - "The following is the conditions on which the Town Plate is run for at Newmarket :- 'Ordered by his Majesty [George II] to be observed by all Persons that put in horses to run for the Town Plate, the New Round Heate at Newmarket, set out the 16th of October, in the 17th year of the Reign of King Charles the Second, which Plate is to be rode for yearly the second Thursday in October, for ever, Anno Dom. 1666. - To run three heats, value about Twenty Pounds, entrance 3l. to deposit 20s. for every heat which the winning horse shall have; and the owner of the last horse for every heat, shall pay the second horse's heat and his own. - If but two start no Stakes, to carry 12st. one pound and a half for waste. - No serving man or groom to ride' ".
According to both Cheny and Pick, the Twelve Stone Plate for aged horses, instituted by Charles II in 1665, was the Town Plate. Following the death of Charles II, it would seem that the Town Plate run at the Spring Meeting was discontinued and replaced by the Twelve Stone Plate run at the Autumn Meeting, which continued on as the Town Plate. A new Royal Plate for six year old horses was later founded by William III at the Autumn Meeting.
A Copy of the Articles relating to His MAJESTY's Plates, annually run for at Newmarket, and other Places, by Six year old Horses, &c, carrying Twelve Stone, published by the Permission of His Grace the Duke of RICHMOND, Master of the Horse [1735-1751]; who, for the Satisfaction of those Gentlemen who desire the Publication thereof, has been pleased to order JAMES ADAMS Esq; Clerk of His MAJESTY's Stables, to sign the said Copy as an evidence of His Grace's Consent.
It is His MAJESTY's COMMAND, that these following Rules be observed, by the Owners and Riders of all such Horses, Mares, or Geldings, as shall run for his Majesty's Plate at Newmarket.
Every Horse, Mare, or Gelding, that runneth for the said Plate, shall carry twelve Stone, fourteen Pounds to the Stone, three Heats.
Every Person that putteth in a Horse, Mare, or Gelding, for the said Plate, are to shew such Horse, Mare or Gelding, with the Marks, Name, and Name of the Owner, to be entered at the King's Stables in Newmarket, the Day before they run; and shall then produce a Certificate under the Hand of the Breeder, that his Horse, Mare, or Gelding, is no more than six Years old the Grass before.
Every Horse, Mare, or Gelding that runneth, are to start between the Hours of One and Four in the Afternoon, and to be allowed half an Hour between each Heat to rub.
Every Horse, Mare, or Gelding that runneth on the wrong Side of the Posts or Flags, or is distanced in any of the Heats, shall have no Share of the said Plate, nor be suffer'd to run any more.
The Horse, Mare, or Gelding that winneth any two Heats, winneth the Plate; but if three several Horses, Mares, or Geldings win each of them a Heat; then those three, and only they, to run a fourth Heat; and the Horse, Mare, or Gelding that winneth the fourth Heat shall have the Plate.
And each Horse, Mare, or Gelding's, &c. Place, as she or they come in by the Ending Post each Heat, as first, second or third, &c. shall by determined by such Judges as shall be appointed for that Purpose by the Master of the Horse. And in case any Horse, Mare, Gelding shall be then or after proved, to be above the Age of six Years the Grass before, the Owner or Owners of such Horse, Mare, or Gelding shall be made incapable of ever running for any of the King's Plates hereafter.
As many of the Riders as shall cross, jostle, or strike, or use any other Foul Play, as shall be adjudged by such Person or Persons, as shall be appointed by the Master of the Horse, such Riders shall be made incapable of ever riding any Horse, Mare, or Gelding for any of His Majesty's Plates hereafter; and such Owners shall have no Benefit of that Plate, but such Owners may be permitted to run any Horse, Mare, or Gelding for any other of His Majesty's free Plates hereafter.
Every Rider shall immediately after each Heat be run, be obliged to come to the Ending Post with his Horse, Mare, or Gelding, then and there to alight, and not before, and there to weigh to the Satisfaction of the Judges appointed for that purpose.
And in case of Neglect or Refusal thereof, such Owners and Riders shall be immediately declared incapable of Running or Riding any more for this and for any of His Majesty's Plates hereafter.
And in case any Difference shall arise relating to their Ages, or in their Running, or to these His Majesty's Orders, &c. the same to be determined by such Person or Persons who shall be appointed by the above-said Master of the Horse.
Memorandum, 'Tis ordered that these Articles shall continue in force for succeeding Years, unless directed to the contrary by His Majesty.
By Order of the Master of the Horse,
JAMES ADAMS Cl. St.
The naming of horses in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was very casual. It was not uncommon for a horse to race under three different names for the same owner in the same year. The following is taken from Cheny's Racing Calendar for 1734:
An INDEX of HORSES NAMES, &c
Lambton ----- Esq; Sly-Looks, 26, 40, 43 Hip, 38
Some would race in the same name for different owners and in different names for different owners. Some raced unnamed under their owner's name or in the name of their sire or dam. Some raced in one name and covered in another. Some were known by different names in different parts of the country. Some stallions with names were also known as unnamed Arabians, Barbs or Turks, under the names of their owners, even if they were foaled in England. Some of these had many owners and were consequently known by many names.
The lack of any central registration system meant that each new owner had to take at face value the pedigree he was given and the majority of these were correct, but there is no doubt that some fictions were introduced in order to dupe prospective buyers. Errors and omissions in some of the pedigrees were accepted by new owners as correct and handed forward. Some pedigrees were written down in such a manner that they were difficult to understand. The following advertisements are examples:
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, March 22, 1760, Number 1106, says - "In the Hands of William Leech, of Mistley Torn, near Manningtree, Essex. To Cover this Season at Half a Guinea a Mare and Half a Crown the Servant: The Money to be paid at the time of Covering. The famous Bay Horse call’d Tortoise, late Earl Gower’s, full fifteen Hands high. He was got by Lord Godolphin’s Whitefoot; Whitefoot was got by Bay Bolton, his Dam by Bartlet’s Childers, Grand-dam by Williams’s Arabian, at Woodstock; her Dam was bred by Capt. Rider, and got by St Victor’s Barb, which was the Sire of the Bald Galloway. Tortoise won three King’s Plates, and the great Stakes at Newmarket, and is one of the strongest Running-Horses in England. Proper Care will be taken of the mares, at two shillings per Week, by me / William Leech".
This pedigree suggests that the Bartlett's Childers mare was the dam of Whitefoot instead of Tortoise.
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, April 11, 1752, Number 687, says - "To Cover Mares this season, In the Hands of John Leech of Wickham-Market, An exceeding beautiful well made Bay Horse (call’d Smoker) full fifteen Hands two Inches high coming eight Years old; is able to carry fifteen or sixteen Stone Weight up to any Pack of Hounds whatsoever; is either fit for Road or Hunting; and is allowed by Judges to get as fine Colts as any Horse in the County.—He was got by the Bay Horse belonging to Mr Reynolds, who won the Hunters Plate at Holt when coming six Years old, and thought afterwards, by Judges, as good a Horse as any in the County; whose Sire was the Bungay Cripple, who was got by the Duke of Devonshire’s Arabian, and out of the Mecklin Mare; he was own brother to Flying Childers, both by Mare and Horse; his Dam was got by Old Spot, a Chesnut Horse belonging to Mr Panton, who won the King’s Plate at Ipswich at five Years old, and was allowed afterwards, by judges, to be as good a Horse as any in England.—To Cover at seven Shillings and Sixpence a Leap at his own Stable; only such Mares as were covered by him last year and did not season, shall be welcome this Year at Five Shillings a Leap. The Reason of my setting him at so low a Price is, my not designing to attend any Market with him this Season, having had the great Misfortune to lose one of my Eyes since the last Season. N B No Mares to be covered by him without the Money being paid at Covering.—Trials free during the Season".
It is anybody's guess which horse in this pedigree is "own brother to Flying Childers, both by Mare and Horse".
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, March 31, 1753, Number 738, says - "There is now in the Hands of James Rogers, Farrier, in Hunston, Suffolk, A Chesnut Colt, call’d Rhinoceros, A very beautiful and strong Colt, full fifteen Hands high, free from all natural Blemishes: He was got by Rocket, which Horse was got by Old Fox, and out of a Partner Mare; his Dam was got by the Bungay Cripple; which Horse was got by the Duke of Devonshire’s Arabian, and out of the Macklin Mare; he was own Brother to Childers; his Grand-Dam was got by Round Robin, and out of a well-bred Mare.—He will cover this Season at Half a Guinea a Mare and one Shilling the Man; the Money to be paid at Covering. N B All Mares that did not season by him last Leap, shall be welcome to a Trial this".
These two pedigrees together suggest that either Cripple or the Devonshire Arabian was own brother to Childers. If it is Cripple then the Devonshire Arabian must be Darley's Arabian, but since the Devonshire Arabian was chesnut and Darley's Arabian was bay, then the Devonshire Arabian must be own brother to the Devonshire Childers and Ovington's or Bartlett's Childers.
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, April 20, 1765, Number 1368, says - "In the Hands of John Leech, of Wickham-Market in Suffolk, A Fine Black Stallion, from Craven in Yorkshire, allowed by good Judges to be the finest and strongest Horse in our County, known by the Name of Sportsman, Will Cover mares this Season at his own Stable, at Eleven Shillings a Leap and Trial: He is full fifteen Hands one Inch high, Master of sixteen Stone, and known to be as good a Hunter as any in the Kingdom. Sportsman has a remarkable fine Forehand, fine Shoulders, short strait Back, full bon’d, and well mark’d: His Stock of Colts are allowed by good Judges to be as fine Colts, according to their Ages, as of any Horse’s getting whatsoever. Sportsman was got by Amos Streckney’s Horse, who is a Son of the noted Horse call’d Smiling Tom; his Dam by a noted Hunter belonging to Mark Bell, got by the Bald Galloway, and his Grand-dam by Almanzar, who is full Brother to Bay Childers. The above Pedigree is a true one, as asserted by Robert Turner, the Breeder, at Richmond in Yorkshire".
This pedigree was related by the same John Leech that gave the pedigree of Smoker, above, and here he makes Childers full brother to Almanzor. The term 'full brother' is here used to mean 'by the same sire'. In the pedigree of Smoker he uses the term 'own brother' to mean 'by the same sire' but adds 'both by Mare and Horse' to show that they are in fact full brothers. The usual meanings in those days were Full (same sire and dam), Own (same sire) and Half (same dam).
Cheny's Racing Calendar for 1743, page xxvi in the index, says - "Chance was bred by his Grace the Duke of Bolton, and got by Fearnought, Son of Bay Bolton. His Dam was got by Almanzor, Son of the Darley Arabian. Chance's Grand-Dam was called Coquette, she was got by Basto, Son of the Byerley Turk. His Great Grand-Dam was got by a Son of Spanker, her Dam by Hautboy, out of a Daughter of Bustler, Son of the Helmsley Turk. Almanzor, which got the Dam of Chance, was bred by the late Mr. Brewster, his Dam was also the Dam of Old Terror and Champion. This Mare as the said Mr. Brewster assured me in his own House (looking his Book at the same time for the Account thereof) was a Mare that had been Sir Matthew Pearson's, and that she was got by Old Hautboy ; yet others I have heard positively affirm that she was got by Old Merlin".
The dam of Almanzor was by Hautboy. The Hautboy mare was bred by Sir Matthew Pearson and traced back in the female line to a sister to the dam of Old Merlin. It was commonplace in those days to refer to a mare by the name of its family, so this Hautboy mare was sometimes called a Merlin mare.
Leeds Mercury, Tuesday, March 30, 1773, says - "To Cover this Season, Now the Property of Robert Austin, At One Guinea a Mare, and a Shilling the Groom, A Beautiful Strong-boned Bay Horse, called Golden Sportsman, seven Years old this Grass, sixteen hands high, free from all Blemishes, quite fresh and healthy, a remarkable good Goer, a very rich Colour, and supposed to be the strongest Blood Horse in the Kingdom. He was got by the late Lord Strange's famous Horse, Sportsman; who, the first Year he started, in 1752, then [five] Years old, won Fifty Pounds at Stamford, and in the same Year, at Newmarket, beat the Duke of Ancaster's Valiant, the Duke of Hamilton's Figure, and Mr Meredith's Midas, and won the Plate at two Heats; the Year following, he won the King's Plates at Guilford, Salisbury, Lewis and Winchester, beating Lord Onslow's Victorious, Lord Byron's Lightening, and the best Horses of that year; and in April, 1754, he beat the famous Bandy, for the King's Plate, at Newmarket, and was the same Spring taken out of Training. The abovesaid Sportsman was got by Whitefoot, and Whitefoot was got by a Natural Barb, out of a Bosto Mare, whose two Sisters won the King's Guineas at Newmarket, two Years successively: His Dam was out of Grey Whynot, and got by Nathan, Son of Lord Lonsdale's Arabian, her Dam by Lord Godolphin's Dumpling, her Grandam by Leeds, out of Old Whynot. It is needless to say any Thing of his great great Gransires, they being so well known. This is a true Pedigree, as Witness my Hand, / John Stivens. Golden Sportsman's Dam was out of a full Blood Mare of the late Lord Carlisle's, which started only for three Fifties, the two first she won, and broke down in running for the third, and was turned into a Brood-Mare. She was got by Old Sedbury, out of a natural Barb Mare, bought by Sir Peter Leicester abroad, and sent into England. This is a true Pedigree, as Witness my Hand, / John Sanders. The Horse will be at the George and Dragon in Gisburn every Monday; at Otley every Friday; at the Red-Lion in Skipton every Saturday, and the rest of the week at Gargrave. N B Good Grass for Mares and proper Care, at Gargrave, at 3 s per week".
London Evening Post, Saturday, March 23, 1754, number 4114 - says "There is now in the Hands of Townley Rigby, Esq; of Middleton near Preston in Lancashire, A brown Horse call’d Whitefoot; he will serve Mares this Year at a Guinea a Mare, and Half a Crown the Servant: He is very strong, quite sound, goes well on his Legs, and is free from all natural Blemishes. Whitefoot is Sire to Lord Strange’s Sportsman, who won Fifty Guineas at Stamford, and Fifty at Newmarket, in the Year 1752; and the King’s Plates at Guilford, Salisbury, Lewes and Winchester, in 1753. Sportsman is the only Colt got by Whitefoot that ever was train’d. Whitefoot was bred by the Earl of Derby, his Sire was out of Lightfoot, a natural Barb Mare of Mr Shepherd’s, of Compsey Ast, and got by his Arabian; his Dam was call’d Brown Betty, and was got by Basto; his Grand Dam was got by the late Mr Leeds’s Arabian, Sire of Leeds, and of the Grand Dam of Childers; his Great Grand Dam was out of a Daughter of Mr Leeds’s Bald Peg, and Spanker, Son of the Darcy yellow Turk; his Great Great Grand Dam was bred by the late Lord General Fairfax, out of a Mare of the same Name, and got by his Lordship’s Morocco Barb".
These two advertisements together produce the following pedigree of Lord Strange's Sportsman:
FAIRFAX MOROCCO BARB = Bald Peg | | | Leeds's Bald Peg = SPANKER | | | mare = LEEDS'S ARABIAN LEEDES = Old Whynot | | | | | | BASTO = mare SHEPHERD'S ARABIAN = Lightfoot mare = DUMPLING | | | --------------------------------------- | | | | | | | Brown Betty Whitefoot Brown Betty = SON [NATURAL BARB] NATHAN = Grey Whynot [1719 Guineas] [1720 Guineas] | | | ---------------------- | | DERBY WHITEFOOT = mare | | | STRANGE'S SPORTSMAN 1747
Intentionally or not, the compiler of the 1754 advertisement in the London Evening Post has taken the dam of Basto and made her the grandam of the Derby Whitefoot. The grandam of the Derby Whitefoot was the Massey Mare. This is the correct pedigree:
FAIRFAX MOROCCO BARB = Bald Peg | | | Leeds's Bald Peg = SPANKER | | | mare = LEEDS'S ARABIAN = Charming Jenny | | | --------------------------------- | | BYERLEY'S TURK = mare LEEDES = Old Whynot | | | | | | Massey Mare = BASTO SHEPHERD'S ARABIAN = Lightfoot mare = DUMPLING | | | --------------------------------------- | | | | | | | Brown Betty Whitefoot Brown Betty = SON [NATURAL BARB] NATHAN = Grey Whynot [1719 Guineas] [1720 Guineas] | | | ---------------------- | | DERBY WHITEFOOT = mare | | | STRANGE'S SPORTSMAN 1747
The following advertisement is a real mindbender:
The Newcastle Courant, Saturday, March 23, 1733-4, Number 465, says - "To be leap'd this Season, at half a Guinea for Leaps and Tryals, and one Guinea a Foal, at the House of John Lambert in Richmond, in the County of York a Stallion, 6 Years old, got by Mr Tarran's black Barb, which was bred at Hampton-Court, by the late Mr Marshall, and sold by Col: Nigus to Thomas Hall, Esq; which Horse was out of a true Barb, and got by old Childer's. The Stallion was out of the Leed's Mare, which was got by the black Barb; his Grand Dam by Leeds; his great Grand Dam a true Barb; given to the said Mr Hall, by Prince George of Denmark. This Stallion is to be sold; Enquire of the said John Lambert, where good Grass is to be had".
The Stamford Mercury, Thursday, March 28, 1728, Vol. XXXI. No.13, (101), says - "The Employment of Master of the King's Studd at Hampton Court, vacant by the Death of Richard Marshal, Esq; is devolved on Francis Negus, Esq; Avener and Clerk Martial, and Master of his Majesty's Buck-Hounds; he having obtained a Reversionary Grant thereof from his late Majesty King George I".
LEEDES ARABIAN = Charming Jenny | --------------------------------------------------------- | | Sister to Leedes LEEDES = Hall's Barb Mare | | | | | | Betty Leedes = DARLEY'S ARABIAN = Old Child Mare | | 1700 | | -------------------- --------------------------------> | <---------------------- | | | | | OLD CHILDERS = Barb Mare | Rattle = mare | [DEVONSHIRE CHESNUT ARABIAN] | | | | [HAMPTON COURT CHESNUT ARABIAN] -------- | | | [HAMPTON COURT LITTEN ARABIAN] | | | | [CYPRUS ARABIAN] | | | | [HALL'S CHESNUT ARABIAN] | | | | | | | | | --------------------------> | <-----------> | <-------- | | | | | | | TARRAN'S BLACK BARB mare WHITENOSE = mare | | | 1722 | | -------------------------------------------- | | | | | | \ / | CHILDERS = mare TARRAN | Leedes mare Silvertail 1714 | 1724 | | 1737 | | | | \ / CRAZY STALLION 1739 1727
This phrase uses kind in the sense of kindred - related by blood.
The Dublin Journal, 1744, says - "The famous Horse called Favourite, just Landed from England, bred by Hugh Bethell, Esq; in Yorkshire, whose Pedegree is certified by mr Bethell as follows. Favourite was got by my Arabian, his Dam by old Ruffler, his dam by yellow Jack, his Dam by Curwin’s Arabian, his Dam by black Legs ,and she out of Gray Royal, of the same Kind of Mr Leeds Spanker; the Curwin Arabian Mare was bought by Sir Marmaduke Wyvill of Lord Darcy of Sedbury, and the Account of his Pedigree I had from my Lord. / Signed, Hugh Bethell. This Horse at 6 Years old won the King’s Plates at Nottingham and Lincoln, where he beat the famous Volunteer and Poor Robin, he won the second Heat at New Market, and was lamed third; He is a Chesnut Horse, well marked, full 15 Hands high, sound and free from all natural Blemishes. He is now in the Possession of Jonathan Pubrick, Groom to [Baptist] Johnston of Tully in the County of Monaghan, Esq; where he will cover Mares this season at one guinea a Leap, and one shilling to the Groom. The Money to be paid before the horse be led out; Good Grass for Mares at the most reasonable Rates".
In the above pedigree Gray Royal is not by Spanker. This is certain. All the other crosses are stated to be by various stallions so if Gray Royal was by Spanker then the author would have said so.
The Newcastle Courant, Saturday, March 23, 1727-8, Number 152, says - "This is to give Notice, that Mr Robert Carter of Brumpton upon Swale, in the County of York, has a Chesnut ston'd Horse, Six Years old, free from Blemish, that he leaps at a Guinea a Mare: He is 14 hands three Inches high, fine shap'd and strong, he was got by Woodcock, and out of a Royal Mare, she got by Lord Darcy's Arabian which he bought of Mr Curwen, her Dam got by Wastel Turk, Duchess was out of the same Mare with this Horse Dam, her Dam got by Black-legs, which got Crecket, her Dam got by the white Turk which got Hautboy, her Dam was the old Royal Mare, which Lord Darcy found at Sadberry, in 1690, so he became the Owner of this Stud; her Dam got by the old Chesnut Turk which got Leeds' Spanker, and all the best Horses of England, betwixt forty and fifty Years ago, as Lord Darcy Witnesseth".
In this pedigree the mare by Black-legs is the same as that in the pedigree of Favourite. The next dam of Favourite, "Gray Royal, of the same Kind of Mr Leeds Spanker", is the same as "her Dam got by the white Turk which got Hautboy, her Dam was the old Royal Mare, which Lord Darcy found at Sadberry, in 1690, so he became the Owner of this Stud; her Dam [the old Royal Mare, which Lord Darcy found at Sadberry] got by the old Chesnut Turk which got Leeds' Spanker". The next dam is Old Morocco Mare, the dam of Spanker.
According to this evidence "Gray Royal, of the same Kind of Mr Leeds Spanker" means "Gray Royal was out of a full sister to Spanker".
The GSB, volume 1, 5th edition, page 10, in the entry for the mare Golden Locks, says her dam was "by Lord Bristol's Hog, of the Hautboy sort". If this pedigree has the same meaning as the previous one then Hog was out of a full sister to Hautboy. Lord Bristol's Hog ran in 1698 so this full sister to Hautboy could be the Gray Royal in the first two pedigrees or a full sister to her.
Sister to Spanker | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | | HAUTBOY HAWKER* Sister to Hautboy BYERLEY'S TURK<=>LISTER'S TURK<=>BLACKLEGS* = Old Grey Royal | | | | | | [of the Spanker kind] | | | | | ---------- | | | | | | | | GREY HAUTBOY mare HOG** | | Blacklegs Royal Mare | | | [of the Hautboy sort] | | | | | | | | | ---------> | <-----------> | <----------------> | <-------------> | <------------------------ | | | | | | | | | ----- ----- | | | | | \ / | | \ / | mare GRASSHOPPER SNAKE = Grey Wilkes | | | [JIGG] | | ----------- ------------ | | \ / | BAY BOLTON = Golden Locks SON OF SNAKE | [SON OF JIGG] | | | ------------------ | | | LOOBY PARTNER EASBY SNAKE 1728 1718 1721 * HAWKER and BLACKLEGS were matched to run at Newmarket in March 1687-88 ** HOG ran in 1698
The Sporting Kalendar for 1754, by John Pond, in the index, says - "Mariamne, the Earl of Portmore's, was got by Victorious, her Dam by Partner, her Grandam by Richardson's Merlin, a Son of old Merlin, bred by Sir Matthew Pierson, her Great Grandam by Makeless, her Great Great Grandam by Burfoot's Ball, her Great Great Great Grandam by an Arabian of the old Duke of Devonshire's. Victorious was got by Rufler, his Dam by the late Hutton's grey Barb, his Grandam by Bay Whynot, which was the Dam of Bay Wilkinson. She came from a kind of Mr. Wilkinson's called the Smithson; Mariamne is full Sister to Sir Ralph Gore's Mare".
According to this pedigree the dam of Bay Wilkinson, the Bay Whynot mare, was "from a kind of Mr. Wilkinson's called the Smithson". If this pedigree has the same meaning as the previous two then the Bay Whynot mare was out of a full sister to Old Smithson. This would make Old Smithson by Wilkinson's Turk out of a mare by Darcy's Woodcock
Pick's Turf Register, volume 1, page 27, says - "Old Smithson was got by Coles's Barb".
The GSB, volume 1, 5th edition, page 393, says - "Smithson (Old), by Cole's Barb".
The Dublin Journal, Tuesday, February 25, 1772, says - "Hercules will stand from 25th March to the end of the Covering Season, at [Oldcastle] in the Co. of Tipperary, and for the Encouragement of Breeders, will Cover for this Year, at One Guinea and a Half, and Half a Crown to the Groom, the Money to be paid before Service. Hercules was bred by Sir Edward O'Brien, Bart, is a beautiful bay, 15 ½ Hands high, and able to carry 16 st he was got by Bustard on the noted Proctor Mare who was got by Young Childers, He was full Brother to his Grace the Duke of Devonshire's Flying Childers, and his Dam was got by Mr Smyth's Horse, which Horse was got by Mr Robinson's Snake, his Dam by Bumble Bee, and she was out of a Bremer Mare, and got by a Son of Old Hautboy, the Proctor Mare's grand Dam was got by Mr Ascough's Cast-away and was out of a Mare that was got by Old Smithson, which Horse was got by Lord D'arcy's barb, out of a Royal Mare, and her great great grand Dam by Bremer. Hercules won the great Stakes at Kildare, carrying 123 st the Meeting before Sir Edward O'Brien's Death, was was then sold for a Stallion; he will be shewn at Clonmell next Assizes. Feb. 20th, 1772".
The evidence here points to Old Smithson being by Cole's Barb (alias Darcy's Barb) out of a Royal Mare. The Wilkinsons were related to the Darcys so it is no stretch of the imagination that Cole's Barb was also known as Wilkinson's Arabian. The Royal Mare was by Darcy's Woodcock (alias Dicky Pierson) foaled in 1663.
FENWICK BARB <==================================================> DODSWORTH <============> DARCY'S YELLOW TURK | | | | | | | | | DARCY'S or WILKINSON'S or BAY WHYNOT DARCY'S WOODCOCK SPANKER | | 1663 | ---------------------------------------------- | -------------- | | | | | | GREY WHYNOT mare | Arlington = WILKINSON'S ARABIAN = mare Charming Jenny CARELESS | | | Barb Mare | [DARCY'S BARB] | | | | | -----> | <----------- [COLE'S BARB] ------------------- | | | | | | | | | | ----------------> | <----------------> | <------------> | <--> | <--------------------------------> | <-------------> | <-------------- | | | | | | | | | | Leedes Arabian mare mare Byerley's Turk mare mare | mare OLD SMITHSON WANTON WILLY | | | | | -------------------------------- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | \ / \ / | | | Acaster Turk mare = BALD GALLOWAY SMALE'S CILDERS SNAIL Bay Whynot mare | mare CARELESS | by Bleeding Childers | 1692 [of the Smithson kind] | | | | 1726 | | | | | | | ---------------------- ------- ------ | | | | | \ / | Roxana SNAIL BAY WILKINSON Hutton's Grey Barb mare mare | 1718 | 1710 1717 | | | | | --------- -------- | | \ / Milkmaid VICTORIOUS mare | 1720 by Ruffler | | 1722 | | | Meliora HOBGOBLIN 1729 1724
The Godolphin Arabian is the most documented of the eastern stallions imported into England but even Lord Godolphin's private stud book failed to record his age. The entry of his death, as recorded in The Royal Studs of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, by C M Prior, page 163, says - "He dyed ye 25th off Decr, 1753, He was 14 Hands, one inch & half, without shoes".
Pick's Turf Register, volume 1, page 57, says - "He died at Hogmagog in 1753, in the 29th year of his age".
The GSB, volume 1, 5th edition, page 395, Obituary of Stallions, says - "The Godolphin Arabian, at Hogmagog, Cambs, in December 1753, age uncertain, but supposed 28".
Both of these entries suppose he was born in 1725, but it is generally accepted that he was born in 1724.
The following announcement appeared in the London Evening-Post, Tuesday, January 1, 1754, - "We hear from Newmarket, that on Christmas-Day died in 33d Year of his Age, the famous Horse known by the Name of the Godolphin Arabian. He was esteemed the best Horse for getting Race-Horses that ever was brought into these Kingdoms. A great Number of his Sons that are Stallions in different Parts of England, are in the highest Esteem amongst the Noblemen, Jockeys, and Breeders of Horses".
This announcement appeared exactly one week after his death and states quite clearly that he was in his 33rd year.
The Godolphin Arabian was 32 years old when he died and was born in 1721.
His last two foals recorded in Lord Godolphin's private stud book were born May 17, 1754. He also sired the stallion Posthumus in 1754.
It should be noted here that his grandson Match'em also died when he was 32 years old. He died Wednesday, February 21, 1781, in his 33rd year, a few days after covering a mare which proved in foal.
The first day of the historical year has been 01st January since the introduction
of the Julian calendar in 45 BC.
The first day of the civil year was 25th March until 1751 [1599 in Scotland] and 01st January since 1752 [1600 in Scotland].
The usual date for the payment of taxes was the first day of the civil year. In 1752 the first day of the civil year was altered to coincide with the first day of the historical year but 25th March was retained by the government as tax day. The change to the Gregorian calendar meant that tax day in 1753 would fall eleven days earlier and as a protest against the calendar reform, the bankers in the City of London withheld payment until 25th March [Julian] or 05th April [Gregorian]. This date has remained as tax day in the United Kingdom where the financial year is 06th April to 05th April. The financial year in the Republic of Ireland has been altered to coincide with the civil and historical year.
2000 - 06th April to 05th April
2001 - 06th April to 31st December
2002 - 01st January - 31st December
In the Julian calendar every fourth historical year is leap. This
was properly implemented starting with the year now numbered 8 AD and by chance
every leap year since has been divisible by 4.
In the Gregorian calendar each historical year divisible by 4 is leap. A century year is leap only if it is divisible by 400.
The Gregorian calendar started in Rome on 15th October 1582, which day came
directly after 04th October 1582 [Julian].
The year 1600 was leap in both calendars so the difference of ten days lasted until February 1700.
The year 1700 was leap in the Julian calendar only and the increased difference of eleven days lasted until February 1800.
In 1599 in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland the Julian calendar was in
use and the first day of the year was 25th March.
In 1600 in Scotland the first day of the year was altered to 01st January.
In 1752 in England, Wales and Ireland the first day of the year was altered to 01st January.
In 1752 in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland 02nd September [Julian] was followed by 14th September [Gregorian].
1598 - 25th March to 24th March [Julian]
1599 - 25th March to 31st December [Julian]
1600 to1751 - 01st January to 31st December [Julian]
1598 to1750 - 25th March to 24th March [Julian]
1751 - 25th March to 31st December [Julian]
1752 - 01st January to 02nd September [Julian/Old Style] then 14th September
to 31st December [Gregorian/New Style]
1753 to Present Day - 01st January to 31st December [Gregorian]
A system of double dating was employed to cope with the simultaneous use of a historical year which began on 01st January and a civil year which began on 25th March. Only the period 01st January to 24th March was affected because it appeared at the beginning of the historical year and at the end of the civil year. The period 25th March to 31st December was never affected.
The last period of double dating in Scotland was 01st January to 24th March 1598/1599 and in England, Wales and Ireland was 01st January to 24th March 1750/1751.
CHARLES II TUESDAY 29 MAY 1660 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 JAMES II FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 - TUESDAY 11 DEC 1688 Interregnum WEDNESDAY 12 DEC 1688 - TUESDAY 12 FEB 1689 WILLIAM III and MARY II WEDNESDAY 13 FEB 1689 - FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 WILLIAM III alone FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 - SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 ANNE SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 - SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 GEORGE I SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 - SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 GEORGE II SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 - SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 GEORGE III SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 - SATURDAY 29 JAN 1820 GEORGE IV SATURDAY 29 JAN 1820 - SATURDAY 26 JUN 1830 WILLIAM IV SATURDAY 26 JUN 1830 - TUESDAY 20 JUN 1837 VICTORIA TUESDAY 20 JUN 1837 - TUESDAY 22 JAN 1901 EDWARD VII TUESDAY 22 JAN 1901 - FRIDAY 06 MAY 1910 GEORGE V FRIDAY 06 MAY 1910 - MONDAY 20 JAN 1936 EDWARD VIII MONDAY 20 JAN 1936 - FRIDAY 11 DEC 1936 GEORGE VI FRIDAY 11 DEC 1936 - WEDNESDAY 06 FEB 1952 ELIZABETH II WEDNESDAY 06 FEB 1952
CHARLES II TUESDAY 29 MAY 1660 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 JAMES VII FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 - TUESDAY 11 DEC 1688 Interregnum WEDNESDAY 12 DEC 1688 - WEDNESDAY 10 APR 1689 WILLIAM II and MARY II THURSDAY 11 APR 1689 - FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 WILLIAM II alone FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 - SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 ANNE SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 - WEDNESDAY 30 APR 1707
CHARLES II TUESDAY 29 MAY 1660 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 JAMES II FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 - TUESDAY 01 JUL 1690 WILLIAM III and MARY II TUESDAY 01 JUL 1690 - FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 WILLIAM III alone FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 - SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 ANNE SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 - SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 GEORGE I SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 - SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 GEORGE II SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 - SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 GEORGE III SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 - WEDNESDAY 31 DEC 1800
CHARLES II On 08 May 1660 the Convention Parliament declared Charles II to have been King de jure since the death of Charles I on 30 Jan 1649. He was King de facto from his entry into London on 29 May 1660. YEAR 01 TUESDAY 30 JAN 1649 - TUESDAY 29 JAN 1650 YEAR 12 MONDAY 30 JAN [TUESDAY 29 MAY] 1660 - TUESDAY 29 JAN 1661 YEAR 37 FRIDAY 30 JAN 1685 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 GEORGE II The change of calendar in 1752 caused year 26 of George II to be extended by eleven days so as to consist of 365 days. YEAR 25 TUESDAY 11 JUN 1751 - WEDNESDAY 10 JUN 1752 YEAR 26 THURSDAY 11 JUN 1752 - THURSDAY 21 JUN 1753 YEAR 27 FRIDAY 22 JUN 1753 - FRIDAY 21 JUN 1754