"Articles ordered by his Majestie to be observed by all persons that put in horses to run for the Plate, the new Round-heate at Newmarkett, set out the 16th day of October, in the 17th year of our Soveraign Lord King Charles II. Which Plate is to be rid for yearly, the seconde Thursday in October, for euer :
"Imprim's - That euery horse, mare, or gelding that rideth for this prize shalbe led out between eleven and twelve of the clock in the forenoon, and shalbe ready to start by one of the same day.
"Item - Eury horse that rideth shalbe bridled, saddled, and shod, and his rider shall weigh twelve stone, fourteen pounds to the stone ; and eury rider that wanteth above one pound and a halfe after he hath rid the heat, shall win no plate or prize.
"Item - Eury horse that rides the new Round Course three times over (set out the 16th day of October, in the 17th year of King Charles II.) on the outside of the Ditch from Newmarket, shall leave all the posts and flags the first and last heats on the right hand, and the second on the left hand, starting and ending at the weighing post, by Cambridge Gap, called Thomond's Post.
"Item - Whatsoever horse rideth willingly, or for advantage, within any of the said flags, shall win no plate or prize, but lose his stakes, and ride no more ; but if he be thrust by any horse against his will, then he shall lose only the heate ; prouided he keeps all the rest of the flags, and come within distance.
"Item - It is allowed for any horse to be relieved at the discrec'on of the owner at the end of each heat, and eury horse shall haue half an hour's time to rub between each heat.
"Item - Whosoever doth stop or stay any of the horses that rideth for this plate or prize, if he be either owner, servant, party, or bettor, and it appears to be willingly done, he shall win no plate, prize, or bets.
"Item - Euery rider that layeth hold on, or striketh any of the riders, shall win no plate or prize.
"Item - If any horse, mare, or gelding, shall fall by any mischance, so that the rider be dismounted, and if does his best afterwards to get within distance, and ride fair (which shall be determined by the Judges of the Field) he shall only lose the heat.
"Item - Any of the Judges may weigh any of the riders at the end of any of the heats ; and if he be found to have fraudulently cast away any of his weight, and want any more than his pound and a halfe, he shall lose the plate, prize, and stakes.
"Item - If any difference shalbe about riding for this plate, which is not expressed in these articles, it shalbe referred to the noblemen and gentlemen which are then present, and being contributors to the said plate ; but more especially the Judges, the Judge being to be chosen every time the plate or prize is run for, by the major part of the contributors that are there present.
"Item - Eury horse that winneth three heats shall win the plate or prize, without running the course.
"Item - Eury horse that runneth for the plate or prize shall put in three pounds, except it be a contributor's horse, and then he shall put in forty shillings.
"Item - Whosoever winneth the plate or prize shall give to the Clerk of the Course twenty shillings, to be distributed to the poor on both sides of Newmarket, and twenty shillings to the Clerk of the Race ; for which he is to keep the course plain and free from cart roots.
"Item - The Clerk of the Race is to receive the stakes before any horse starts, and is to deliver it to the tenant for the time being, who is to give sufficient security, not only for his rent, but likewise to add such stakes to the ensuing plate or prize the next year.
"Item - Eury Horse, Mare, or Gelding, that rideth for this plate or prize, shall likewise deposit twenty shillings for every heat, which the winning horse shall haue ; and the last horse of every heat shall pay the second horse's stakes and his own, which stakes are likewise to be deposited into the Clerk of the Race's hands before the horses start, to pay the winning horse his stakes every heat, and likewise twenty shillings to the second horse, to save his stakes ; but if there runneth but two horses, then no stakes to be run for but what is to add to the next year's plate.
"Item - No horse that winneth not one of the three Heats shalbe permitted to come in and run the course.
"Item - The plate or prize is to be run for the second Thursday in October, every rider carrying twelve stone weight, at fourteen pounds to the stone, besides bridle and saddle ; and if any gentleman that rides shall carry weight in his saddle, he shall have liberty, provided he allows two pounds to the rest for the weight of their saddles.
"Item - The Clerk of the Race is to summons the riders to start again at the end of half an hour by the signal of drum, trumpet, or any other way, setting up an hour glass for that purpose.
"Item - No man is admitted to ride for this prize that is either a serving man or groom.
"Item - Those horses that after the running of the three heats shall run the four mile course, shall lead away, and start within an hour and halfe, or else to win no plate or prize."
The earliest reference to the Town Plate at Newmarket appears on page 22 of Muir's Ye Olde New-Markitt Calendar under Results of Newmarket Matches. The result, which appears amongst those of the 1680 Spring Meeting, reads - "Town Plate. Mr. Griffin's horse - 1. Three lords and two other gentlemen's horses competed. The prize was afterwards presented to the town by Mr. Griffin".
Cheny's Racing Calendar for 1744, page 74, referring to the Town Plate run at Newmarket on Thursday, October 11, says - "This Prize was founded in the Reign of K. Charles the Second, to be continued annually for ever, free for any Horse, &c. and to be yearly run for on the second Thursday in October, Weight twelve Stone, exclusive of Bridle and Saddle, and rode for by Gentlemen".
Pick's Turf Register, volume 1, page 74, says - "The following is the conditions on which the Town Plate is run for at Newmarket :- 'Ordered by his Majesty [George II] to be observed by all Persons that put in horses to run for the Town Plate, the New Round Heate at Newmarket, set out the 16th of October, in the 17th year of the Reign of King Charles the Second, which Plate is to be rode for yearly the second Thursday in October, for ever, Anno Dom. 1666. - To run three heats, value about Twenty Pounds, entrance 3l. to deposit 20s. for every heat which the winning horse shall have; and the owner of the last horse for every heat, shall pay the second horse's heat and his own. - If but two start no Stakes, to carry 12st. one pound and a half for waste. - No serving man or groom to ride' ".
According to both Cheny and Pick, the Twelve Stone Plate for aged horses, instituted by Charles II in 1665, was the Town Plate. Following the death of Charles II, it would seem that the Town Plate run at the Spring Meeting was discontinued and replaced by the Twelve Stone Plate run at the Autumn Meeting, which continued on as the Town Plate. A new Royal Plate for six year old horses was later founded by William III at the Autumn Meeting.
A Copy of the Articles relating to His MAJESTY's Plates, annually run for at Newmarket, and other Places, by Six year old Horses, &c, carrying Twelve Stone, published by the Permission of His Grace the Duke of RICHMOND, Master of the Horse [1735-1751]; who, for the Satisfaction of those Gentlemen who desire the Publication thereof, has been pleased to order JAMES ADAMS Esq; Clerk of His MAJESTY's Stables, to sign the said Copy as an evidence of His Grace's Consent.
It is His MAJESTY's COMMAND, that these following Rules be observed, by the Owners and Riders of all such Horses, Mares, or Geldings, as shall run for his Majesty's Plate at Newmarket.
Every Horse, Mare, or Gelding, that runneth for the said Plate, shall carry twelve Stone, fourteen Pounds to the Stone, three Heats.
Every Person that putteth in a Horse, Mare, or Gelding, for the said Plate, are to shew such Horse, Mare or Gelding, with the Marks, Name, and Name of the Owner, to be entered at the King's Stables in Newmarket, the Day before they run; and shall then produce a Certificate under the Hand of the Breeder, that his Horse, Mare, or Gelding, is no more than six Years old the Grass before.
Every Horse, Mare, or Gelding that runneth, are to start between the Hours of One and Four in the Afternoon, and to be allowed half an Hour between each Heat to rub.
Every Horse, Mare, or Gelding that runneth on the wrong Side of the Posts or Flags, or is distanced in any of the Heats, shall have no Share of the said Plate, nor be suffer'd to run any more.
The Horse, Mare, or Gelding that winneth any two Heats, winneth the Plate; but if three several Horses, Mares, or Geldings win each of them a Heat; then those three, and only they, to run a fourth Heat; and the Horse, Mare, or Gelding that winneth the fourth Heat shall have the Plate.
And each Horse, Mare, or Gelding's, &c. Place, as she or they come in by the Ending Post each Heat, as first, second or third, &c. shall by determined by such Judges as shall be appointed for that Purpose by the Master of the Horse. And in case any Horse, Mare, Gelding shall be then or after proved, to be above the Age of six Years the Grass before, the Owner or Owners of such Horse, Mare, or Gelding shall be made incapable of ever running for any of the King's Plates hereafter.
As many of the Riders as shall cross, jostle, or strike, or use any other Foul Play, as shall be adjudged by such Person or Persons, as shall be appointed by the Master of the Horse, such Riders shall be made incapable of ever riding any Horse, Mare, or Gelding for any of His Majesty's Plates hereafter; and such Owners shall have no Benefit of that Plate, but such Owners may be permitted to run any Horse, Mare, or Gelding for any other of His Majesty's free Plates hereafter.
Every Rider shall immediately after each Heat be run, be obliged to come to the Ending Post with his Horse, Mare, or Gelding, then and there to alight, and not before, and there to weigh to the Satisfaction of the Judges appointed for that purpose.
And in case of Neglect or Refusal thereof, such Owners and Riders shall be immediately declared incapable of Running or Riding any more for this and for any of His Majesty's Plates hereafter.
And in case any Difference shall arise relating to their Ages, or in their Running, or to these His Majesty's Orders, &c. the same to be determined by such Person or Persons who shall be appointed by the above-said Master of the Horse.
Memorandum, 'Tis ordered that these Articles shall continue in force for succeeding Years, unless directed to the contrary by His Majesty.
By Order of the Master of the Horse,
JAMES ADAMS Cl. St.
The naming of horses in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was very casual. It was not uncommon for a horse to race under three different names for the same owner in the same year. The following is taken from Cheny's Racing Calendar for 1734:
An INDEX of HORSES NAMES, &c
Lambton ----- Esq; Sly-Looks, 26, 40, 43 Hip, 38
Some would race in the same name for different owners and in different names for different owners. Some raced unnamed under their owner's name or in the name of their sire or dam. Some raced in one name and covered in another. Some were known by different names in different parts of the country. Some stallions with names were also known as unnamed Arabians, Barbs or Turks, under the names of their owners, even if they were foaled in England. Some of these had many owners and were consequently known by many names.
The lack of any central registration system meant that each new owner had to take at face value the pedigree he was given and the majority of these were correct, but there is no doubt that some fictions were introduced in order to dupe prospective buyers. Errors and omissions in some of the pedigrees were accepted by new owners as correct and handed forward. Some pedigrees were written down in such a manner that they were difficult to understand. The following advertisements are examples:
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, March 22, 1760, Number 1106, says - "In the Hands of William Leech, of Mistley Torn, near Manningtree, Essex. To Cover this Season at Half a Guinea a Mare and Half a Crown the Servant: The Money to be paid at the time of Covering. The famous Bay Horse call’d Tortoise, late Earl Gower’s, full fifteen Hands high. He was got by Lord Godolphin’s Whitefoot; Whitefoot was got by Bay Bolton, his Dam by Bartlet’s Childers, Grand-dam by Williams’s Arabian, at Woodstock; her Dam was bred by Capt. Rider, and got by St Victor’s Barb, which was the Sire of the Bald Galloway. Tortoise won three King’s Plates, and the great Stakes at Newmarket, and is one of the strongest Running-Horses in England. Proper Care will be taken of the mares, at two shillings per Week, by me / William Leech".
This pedigree suggests that the Bartlett's Childers mare was the dam of Whitefoot instead of Tortoise.
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, April 11, 1752, Number 687, says - "To Cover Mares this season, In the Hands of John Leech of Wickham-Market, An exceeding beautiful well made Bay Horse (call’d Smoker) full fifteen Hands two Inches high coming eight Years old; is able to carry fifteen or sixteen Stone Weight up to any Pack of Hounds whatsoever; is either fit for Road or Hunting; and is allowed by Judges to get as fine Colts as any Horse in the County.—He was got by the Bay Horse belonging to Mr Reynolds, who won the Hunters Plate at Holt when coming six Years old, and thought afterwards, by Judges, as good a Horse as any in the County; whose Sire was the Bungay Cripple, who was got by the Duke of Devonshire’s Arabian, and out of the Mecklin Mare; he was own brother to Flying Childers, both by Mare and Horse; his Dam was got by Old Spot, a Chesnut Horse belonging to Mr Panton, who won the King’s Plate at Ipswich at five Years old, and was allowed afterwards, by judges, to be as good a Horse as any in England.—To Cover at seven Shillings and Sixpence a Leap at his own Stable; only such Mares as were covered by him last year and did not season, shall be welcome this Year at Five Shillings a Leap. The Reason of my setting him at so low a Price is, my not designing to attend any Market with him this Season, having had the great Misfortune to lose one of my Eyes since the last Season. N B No Mares to be covered by him without the Money being paid at Covering.—Trials free during the Season".
It is anybody's guess which horse in this pedigree is "own brother to Flying Childers, both by Mare and Horse".
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, March 31, 1753, Number 738, says - "There is now in the Hands of James Rogers, Farrier, in Hunston, Suffolk, A Chesnut Colt, call’d Rhinoceros, A very beautiful and strong Colt, full fifteen Hands high, free from all natural Blemishes: He was got by Rocket, which Horse was got by Old Fox, and out of a Partner Mare; his Dam was got by the Bungay Cripple; which Horse was got by the Duke of Devonshire’s Arabian, and out of the Macklin Mare; he was own Brother to Childers; his Grand-Dam was got by Round Robin, and out of a well-bred Mare.—He will cover this Season at Half a Guinea a Mare and one Shilling the Man; the Money to be paid at Covering. N B All Mares that did not season by him last Leap, shall be welcome to a Trial this".
These two pedigrees together suggest that either Cripple or the Devonshire Arabian was own brother to Childers. If it is Cripple then the Devonshire Arabian must be Darley's Arabian, and the Mecklin Mare must be Betty Leedes. If not then the Devonshire Arabian must be own brother to the Devonshire Childers and Ovington's or Bartlett's Childers.
The Ipswich Journal, Saturday, April 20, 1765, Number 1368, says - "In the Hands of John Leech, of Wickham-Market in Suffolk, A Fine Black Stallion, from Craven in Yorkshire, allowed by good Judges to be the finest and strongest Horse in our County, known by the Name of Sportsman, Will Cover mares this Season at his own Stable, at Eleven Shillings a Leap and Trial: He is full fifteen Hands one Inch high, Master of sixteen Stone, and known to be as good a Hunter as any in the Kingdom. Sportsman has a remarkable fine Forehand, fine Shoulders, short strait Back, full bon’d, and well mark’d: His Stock of Colts are allowed by good Judges to be as fine Colts, according to their Ages, as of any Horse’s getting whatsoever. Sportsman was got by Amos Streckney’s Horse, who is a Son of the noted Horse call’d Smiling Tom; his Dam by a noted Hunter belonging to Mark Bell, got by the Bald Galloway, and his Grand-dam by Almanzar, who is full Brother to Bay Childers. The above Pedigree is a true one, as asserted by Robert Turner, the Breeder, at Richmond in Yorkshire".
This pedigree was related by the same John Leech that gave the pedigree of Smoker, above, and here he makes Childers own brother to Almanzor. This would make the Mecklin mare identical with the Hautboy mare that was the dam of Terror and Champion. The following pedigree, however, makes it clear that many breeders thought this mare was a Merlin mare and it may be that Mecklin mare is a curruption of this.
Cheny's Racing Calendar for 1743, page xxvi in the index, says - "Chance was bred by his Grace the Duke of Bolton, and got by Fearnought, Son of Bay Bolton. His Dam was got by Almanzor, Son of the Darley Arabian. Chance's Grand-Dam was called Coquette, she was got by Basto, Son of the Byerley Turk. His Great Grand-Dam was got by a Son of Spanker, her Dam by Hautboy, out of a Daughter of Bustler, Son of the Helmsley Turk. Almanzor, which got the Dam of Chance, was bred by the late Mr. Brewster, his Dam was also the Dam of Old Terror and Champion. This Mare as the said Mr. Brewster assured me in his own House (looking his Book at the same time for the Account thereof) was a Mare that had been Sir Matthew Pearson's, and that she was got by Old Hautboy ; yet others I have heard positively affirm that she was got by Old Merlin".
The following advertisement is a real mindbender:
The Newcastle Courant, Saturday, March 23, 1733-4, Number 465, says - "To be leap'd this Season, at half a Guinea for Leaps and Tryals, and one Guinea a Foal, at the House of John Lambert in Richmond, in the County of York a Stallion, 6 Years old, got by Mr Tarran's black Barb, which was bred at Hampton-Court, by the late Mr Marshall, and sold by Col: Nigus to Thomas Hall, Esq; which Horse was out of a true Barb, and got by old Childer's. The Stallion was out of the Leed's Mare, which was got by the black Barb; his Grand Dam by Leeds; his great Grand Dam a true Barb; given to the said Mr Hall, by Prince George of Denmark. This Stallion is to be sold; Enquire of the said John Lambert, where good Grass is to be had".
The Stamford Mercury, Thursday, March 28, 1728, Vol. XXXI. No.13, (101), says - "The Employment of Master of the King's Studd at Hampton Court, vacant by the Death of Richard Marshal, Esq; is devolved on Francis Negus, Esq; Avener and Clerk Martial, and Master of his Majesty's Buck-Hounds; he having obtained a Reversionary Grant thereof from his late Majesty King George I".
LEEDES ARABIAN = Charming Jenny = BYERLEY'S TURK | | ----------------------- ------------------------------------ | | | Sister to Leedes LEEDES = Hall's Barb Mare JIGG | | | | | | | | | Betty Leedes = DARLEY'S ARABIAN | | | | 1700 | | -------------- ----------> | <--------------------------------------------> | <---------- | | | | | | OLD CHILDERS = Barb Mare | | mare | | | | | | -----------> | <------------ | | | | | | | | mare = TARRAN'S BLACK BARB HALL'S CHESNUT = mare | | | | ARABIAN | | | | | | | | | -----------------------> | <-------- ---------- | | | | | | | | | | CHILDERS = mare TARRAN Leedes Mare | mare HENEAGE'S = Rattle mare 1714 | 1724 | | | WHITENOSE | | | | | 1722 | | \ / | | CRAZY STALLION SCRUTINEER Silvertail 1739 1727 by Aleppo 1737 1732
The first day of the historical year has been 01st January since the introduction
of the Julian calendar in 45 BC.
The first day of the civil year was 25th March until 1751 [1599 in Scotland] and 01st January since 1752 [1600 in Scotland].
The usual date for the payment of taxes was the first day of the civil year. In 1752 the first day of the civil year was altered to coincide with the first day of the historical year but 25th March was retained by the government as tax day. The change to the Gregorian calendar meant that tax day in 1753 would fall eleven days earlier and as a protest against the calendar reform, the bankers in the City of London withheld payment until 25th March [Julian] or 05th April [Gregorian]. This date has remained as tax day in the United Kingdom where the financial year is 06th April to 05th April. The financial year in the Republic of Ireland has been altered to coincide with the civil and historical year.
2000 - 06th April to 05th April
2001 - 06th April to 31st December
2002 - 01st January - 31st December
In the Julian calendar every fourth historical year is leap. This
was properly implemented starting with the year now numbered 8 AD and by chance
every leap year since has been divisible by 4.
In the Gregorian calendar each historical year divisible by 4 is leap. A century year is leap only if it is divisible by 400.
The Gregorian calendar started in Rome on 15th October 1582, which day came
directly after 04th October 1582 [Julian].
The year 1600 was leap in both calendars so the difference of ten days lasted until February 1700.
The year 1700 was leap in the Julian calendar only and the increased difference of eleven days lasted until February 1800.
In 1599 in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland the Julian calendar was in
use and the first day of the year was 25th March.
In 1600 in Scotland the first day of the year was altered to 01st January.
In 1752 in England, Wales and Ireland the first day of the year was altered to 01st January.
In 1752 in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland 02nd September [Julian] was followed by 14th September [Gregorian].
1598 - 25th March to 24th March [Julian]
1599 - 25th March to 31st December [Julian]
1600 to1751 - 01st January to 31st December [Julian]
1598 to1750 - 25th March to 24th March [Julian]
1751 - 25th March to 31st December [Julian]
1752 - 01st January to 02nd September [Julian/Old Style] then 14th September
to 31st December [Gregorian/New Style]
1753 to Present Day - 01st January to 31st December [Gregorian]
A system of double dating was employed to cope with the simultaneous use of a historical year which began on 01st January and a civil year which began on 25th March. Only the period 01st January to 24th March was affected because it appeared at the beginning of the historical year and at the end of the civil year. The period 25th March to 31st December was never affected.
The last period of double dating in Scotland was 01st January to 24th March 1598/1599 and in England, Wales and Ireland was 01st January to 24th March 1750/1751.
CHARLES II TUESDAY 29 MAY 1660 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 JAMES II FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 - TUESDAY 11 DEC 1688 Interregnum WEDNESDAY 12 DEC 1688 - TUESDAY 12 FEB 1689 WILLIAM III and MARY II WEDNESDAY 13 FEB 1689 - FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 WILLIAM III alone FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 - SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 ANNE SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 - SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 GEORGE I SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 - SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 GEORGE II SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 - SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 GEORGE III SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 - SATURDAY 29 JAN 1820 GEORGE IV SATURDAY 29 JAN 1820 - SATURDAY 26 JUN 1830 WILLIAM IV SATURDAY 26 JUN 1830 - TUESDAY 20 JUN 1837 VICTORIA TUESDAY 20 JUN 1837 - TUESDAY 22 JAN 1901 EDWARD VII TUESDAY 22 JAN 1901 - FRIDAY 06 MAY 1910 GEORGE V FRIDAY 06 MAY 1910 - MONDAY 20 JAN 1936 EDWARD VIII MONDAY 20 JAN 1936 - FRIDAY 11 DEC 1936 GEORGE VI FRIDAY 11 DEC 1936 - WEDNESDAY 06 FEB 1952 ELIZABETH II WEDNESDAY 06 FEB 1952
CHARLES II TUESDAY 29 MAY 1660 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 JAMES VII FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 - TUESDAY 11 DEC 1688 Interregnum WEDNESDAY 12 DEC 1688 - WEDNESDAY 10 APR 1689 WILLIAM II and MARY II THURSDAY 11 APR 1689 - FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 WILLIAM II alone FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 - SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 ANNE SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 - WEDNESDAY 30 APR 1707
CHARLES II TUESDAY 29 MAY 1660 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 JAMES II FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 - TUESDAY 01 JUL 1690 WILLIAM III and MARY II TUESDAY 01 JUL 1690 - FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 WILLIAM III alone FRIDAY 28 DEC 1694 - SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 ANNE SUNDAY 08 MAR 1702 - SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 GEORGE I SUNDAY 01 AUG 1714 - SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 GEORGE II SUNDAY 11 JUN 1727 - SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 GEORGE III SATURDAY 25 OCT 1760 - WEDNESDAY 31 DEC 1800
CHARLES II On 08 May 1660 the Convention Parliament declared Charles II to have been King de jure since the death of Charles I on 30 Jan 1649. He was King de facto from his entry into London on 29 May 1660. YEAR 01 TUESDAY 30 JAN 1649 - TUESDAY 29 JAN 1650 YEAR 12 MONDAY 30 JAN [TUESDAY 29 MAY] 1660 - TUESDAY 29 JAN 1661 YEAR 37 FRIDAY 30 JAN 1685 - FRIDAY 06 FEB 1685 GEORGE II The change of calendar in 1752 caused year 26 of George II to be extended by eleven days so as to consist of 365 days. YEAR 25 TUESDAY 11 JUN 1751 - WEDNESDAY 10 JUN 1752 YEAR 26 THURSDAY 11 JUN 1752 - THURSDAY 21 JUN 1753 YEAR 27 FRIDAY 22 JUN 1753 - FRIDAY 21 JUN 1754